Rackham, O. (2008): Tansley review. Ancient woodlands: modern threats. New Phytologist 180: 571-586.


Tansley review
Ancient woodlands: modern threats
Oliver Rackham

This review discusses the following adverse influences on long-established forests, wood-pastures, and savannas in Europe and other continents: destruction and fragmentation, depletion; pollution and eutrophication; fire and lack of fire; excessive shade; excessive numbers of deer; invasive species and cultivars; infilling of savanna; climate change; and globalization of plant diseases. Human influences on the world's mainland forests and savannas have been pervasive throughout the Holocene, to the extent that recovering 'virgin forest' becomes a somewhat nebulous conservation objective. Present and future threats arise both from increasing human activities and from withdrawal of the human activities that have shaped forests in the past. The severity of different threats depends on so many factors, especially the properties of different plants and animals, that generalization is impossible; however, in the long term, spread of pathogens is probably the most serious threat.


Tansley review
Ancient woodlands: modern threats
Oliver Rackham

I. Introduction
II. What is meant by threats?
III. Destruction and fragmentation
IV. Depletion
V. Pollution and eutrophication
VI. Fire and lack of fire
VII. Excessive shade
VIII. Excessive numbers of deer and other ungulates
IX. Invasive species
X. Infilling of savanna
XI. Climate change
XII. Globalization of plant diseases
XIII. Interactions
XIV. Importance of different threats
XV. Conclusions

ancient woodland, climate change, destruction and fragmentation, excessive shade and deer, fire, invasive species, plant disease, pollution and eutrophication

Címszavazva - VA

ER Archívum (2008/P-035/1, 2008/P-035/2)
Első szerző
Rackham, Oliver